Linux Tutorial – Understanding User and Group

Workspace edit.png

Introduction

Linux is a multiuser operating system, which means that Linux is an operating system that is designed to be used by many users simultaneously. This requires Linux to impose restrictions so that user A can not see or delete user B’s data and vice versa.

What Will I Learn?

  • You will learn what User and Group are in Linux operating system (in this case Debian 9) with explanations
  • You will learn how to add User and Group along with the necessary settings and configurations
  • You will learn how to manage User and Group properties for everyday work in a Linux environment

Requirements

To follow this tutorial, users are expected to be familiar with;

  • Linux Operating System (Debian-based)
  • Basic understanding and using of Linux Command Line Interface (CLI).

Difficulty

  • Basic

Tutorial Content

This time I will discuss and show you what and how to manage users, groups and a couple of things should be considered about User ang Group in Linux.

User Account

Linux users, usually know only two User Accounts for instance iqbaladanor utopian account and root account. In addition to root and regular user accounts. Actually, Linux also automatically creates other accounts that have their respective tasks and principal functions. Generally, user account on Linux is divided into 3 groups only, namely:

  • root account
    This account has highest access privileges, can do anything from installing, creating documents, reading files, even able to delete anything. There is only one root account on the system and it can not be deleted, but we still can change its name to e.g: iqbaladan, this action is strongly discouraged.
  • Normal user account
    This is a normal or regular account with limited permissions created manually in accordance with the criteria allowed by the root account above. This account can be created using Graphical User Interface or with Command Line Interface.
  • System account
    The last are special accounts created automatically with their each tasks. We can not log in with this type of account. For example the account lp. This account is used by the process of printing documents to the printer. In addition to the lp account, there are many more such system accounts with their specific tasks and functions such as daemonadmbin and so on.

One thing should be remembered and noted that the username in Linux distinguish lowercase and uppercase, case sensitive. Utopianutopian and utoPian are three different users, usually naming this username using all lowercase letters to avoid confusion.

Understanding /etc/passwd

The user accounts in Linux are stored in a plain text in /etc/passwd. You can see it using the cat command.

user@debian: ~_002.png

user@debian:~$ cat /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/usr/sbin/nologin
bin:x:2:2:bin:/bin:/usr/sbin/nologin
sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/usr/sbin/nologin
sync:x:4:65534:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
games:x:5:60:games:/usr/games:/usr/sbin/nologin
.
.
.
avahi:x:114:119:Avahi mDNS daemon,,,:/var/run/avahi-daemon:/bin/false
colord:x:115:120:colord colour management daemon,,,:/var/lib/colord:/bin/false
saned:x:116:121::/var/lib/saned:/bin/false
Debian-gdm:x:117:122:Gnome Display Manager:/var/lib/gdm3:/bin/false
user:x:1000:1000:Debian Live user,,,:/home/user:/bin/bash

It appears that there are other users besides the root user as I have discussed above all of which are system accounts.

The file in this /etc/passwd does not only store the user name and also the user’s password, but also other information about the account. Each line of the /etc/passwd file consists of 7 columns/sections separated by a colon:.

iqbaladan:x:500:500:iqbal adan utopian:/root:/bin/bash

No Column Explanation
1 iqbaladan Used for log in, it is strongly recommended to use lowercase
2 x Encrypted root password, if the sign is x as in the above example, it means that this encrypted password is stored in /etc/shadow. If it contains a (*) sign, the account is not activated
3 500 User Id (UID) of the related account
4 500 Group Id (GID) of the related account
5 iqbal adan utopian a description column containing the full name of the user
6 /home/iqbaladan location of the home directory owned by the user
7 /bin/bash Shell provided to users at login or using text mode

Understanding Password Storage File at /etc/shadow

This file is an additional file that can only be read by the root account so that it can not be read by anyone, so the existing application still runs fine, while the /etc/shadow file can only be read and accessed by the root account.

user@debian: ~_003.png

root@debian:~# cat /etc/shadow
root:*:17541:0:99999:7:::
daemon:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
bin:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
sys:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
sync:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
games:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
.
.
.
avahi:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
colord:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
saned:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
Debian-gdm:*:17509:0:99999:7:::
user:8Ab05sVQ4LLps:17541:0:99999:7:::

Similar to the /etc/passwd file, the /etc/shadow file also includes some pieces of information separated by a colon :.

iqbaladan:8Ab05sVQ4LLps:17541:0:99999:7:::

No Column Explanation
1 iqbaladan Name used for login, same as in /etc/passwd
2 8Ab05sVQ4LLps encrypted login password
3 17541 number of days since password changed. Calculated since January 01, 1970
4 0 Minimum lifespan for an account to change the password (calculated in days). If filled with 3 then you can just change the password on Thursday if previously replaced on Monday
5 99999 The maximum age of a password, calculated in days, if you fill 60 days, then every 60 days you must change the new password
6 7 Users will be reminded to change their password 7 days before the maximum age of the password is passed
7 (Empty) How long does it take to not to change the password after the maximum age limit of a password is passed. If this time is passed, then the account will be automatically disabled
8 (Empty) How long will it take for no login at all, starting from January 1, 1970. The account will be disabled if this time elapses
9 (Empty) Not used

Group

Each Linux account can be a member of one group or multiple groups at once. Information about each group and its members are stored in /etc/group‘s file.

user@debian: ~_004.png

user@debian:~$ cat /etc/group
root:x:0:
daemon:x:1:
bin:x:2:
sys:x:3:
adm:x:4:
tty:x:5:
disk:x:6:
lp:x:7:
mail:x:8:
.
.
.
ssh:x:113:
bluetooth:x:114:user
geoclue:x:115:
pulse:x:116:
pulse-access:x:117:
scanner:x:118:saned,user
avahi:x:119:
colord:x:120:
saned:x:121:
Debian-gdm:x:122:
user:x:1000:

As in the /etc/ passwd file, the /etc/group file also consists of several parts separated by a colon:.

root:x:0:

No Column Explanation
1 root Group name. This name is displayed as the file owner group in the command ls -l
2 x password for the group, which is almost never used. The x character indicates that the password is stored in /etc/gshadow
3 0 Group ID (GID), or unique code from each group. This code is shown in /etc/passwd‘s file. By default the Gropu ID (GID) is the same as the User ID (UID)
4 (Empty) The username which is a member of the group. Some usernames can be included into a group with comma characters as separator marks.

Creating Users and Groups

User and group accounts can be created using text mode and GUI. Each way has advantages and disadvantages. GUI offers a nice and easy to use way but you need to be more patient because it has to wait for the menu to show up and a slower process.

Adding User Accounts with GUI

Adding a user account with Graphical User Interface (GUI) is the easiest way. It can be done by hover over the Setting -> System -> Users.

All Settings_007.png

Next step is to hit the blue Add User button, then fill in the desired name. As we can see, the user created is utopia this because userutopian is already exists. Creating user with GUI also gives some setting options.

Add User_008.png

Adding User Accounts with Command Line

Adding a user account with the command line can be done using useraddoradduser. The actual command is useradd, while adduser is a soft link to the useradd command. The useradd command adds a user account without providing a password, so you need to add a password for the newly created account with the command /usr/bin/passwd.

root@debian:~# useradd utopian
root@debian:~# passwd utopian
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully

user@debian: ~_005.png

In the above example, after adding a utopian user with the command useradd utopian, I provide the password on that account with the command ‘passwd utopian`.

To manipulate groups, often use groupadd [groupname] to add a group, usermod -G [groupname] [username] command to add user into group and groupdel [groupname] to delete a group.

root@debian:~# useradd utopian
root@debian:~# groupadd steemit
root@debian:~# usermod -G steemit utopian
root@debian:~# tail -2 /etc/group
utopian:x:1001:
steemit:x:1002:utopian
root@debian:~# groupdel steemit

user@debian: ~_006.png

Here are the explanation of the above commands;

  • useradd utopian -> create a new user with utopian name. This command also automatically adds a gruop with utopian name.
  • groupadd steemit -> create a new group called steemit.
  • usermod -G steemit utopian -> add a utopian user into steemit group.
  • tail -2 /etc/group -> see the last 2 groups created, utopian and steemit. It appears that steemit has a utopian as a member.
  • groupdel steemit -> delete steemit group.

Set User Property

We’ve already discussed the use of useradd to add a user account and create a group for that user. So how to set the validity of the account as I explain in the discussion of /etc/shadow can be done? You can do it in three ways:

The first way is to use the usermod command. This command can be used to set the validity time of an account, in this case utopian;

root@debian:~# useradd utopian
root@debian:~# usermod -e 5/30/2019 utopian

which mean the utopian user will expire on 5/30/2019, after this time limit, the utopian user can no longer be used.

With usermod, you can also disable (lock) or enable the user, change the home directory, change the shell, change the UID, and so forth. As usual, you can run the command man usermod or usermod --help to get more explanations of the parameters of this command.

The second way is to provide additional parameters when account is created with useradd. There are dozens of additional parameters you can use to manage user creation. You can use the manual of this command with man useradd. The parameters used to set the validity of an account are -e, for instance;

root@debian:~# useradd -e 5/30/2019 utopian

The third way is to change the default behavior of useradd. You can do this by editing the /etc/login.defs and /etc/default/useradd‘s files. To know more information and purpose of this parameter, it can be seen through command man login.defs. I use the grep command after cat to remove only blank lines, or comments (comment lines in the configuration file usually start with #).

root@debian:~# cat /etc/default/useradd | grep -v "^#"
root@debian:~# cat /etc/login.defs |grep -v "^&"|grep -v "^#"

Conclusion

We have discussed about Users and Groups in the Linux operating system, as well as how to add and delete Users and Groups on Linux operating system along with some settings and configurations. Hopefully this tutorial is useful for Linux users to gain more understanding about User and Group in Linux operating system.

Best regards, @iqbaladan.